ABSTRACTS

TOWARDS A UNIFIED COSMOLOGY

Abstract by John Kapp


TOWARDS A UNIFIED COSMOLOGY

by Reginald Kapp (1885-1966)
303 page book published by Hutchison in 1960 and Scientific Book Guild 1962

Abstract by his son, John Kapp, 22, Saxon Rd, Hove, BN3 4LE
Tel: 01273 417997,           Email: johnkapp@btinternet.com
26.9.05

My father’s philosophical mission was to apply the principle of minimum assumption (Occam’s razor) to two questions about matter: (which includes energy and everything with location). 1.   Is it the only reality? (The explanation of life is the metaphysics of biology, the microcosm).
2.   Is it permanent? (Matter, space, time, causation, is cosmology and astro-physics, the macrocosm).

His first book, Science versus materialism published in 1940, addresses the first question, (see sections 4 and 8 in this website). However, in an 8 page chapter (26) entitled ‘A note on the origin of matter’. he digressed briefly to address the second question, concluding that matter is continuously being created and extinguished. This was 8 years before Hoyle, Bondi and Gold published their theory of ‘continuous creation’ in 1948. He always regretted that they did not include continuous extinction. His second book, Mind Life and Body 1951, devoted a further 196 pages to the first question, and his third book, Towards a Unified Cosmology 1960, devoted 303 pages to the second question. He considers all the possible hypotheses about the past and future duration of matter, as follows.

A. In the past

B. In the future

A1 All matter has existed for all time

B1 All matter will continue to exist for all time

A2 All matter has existed for approximately the same length of time, ie from the range of dates between when the process of creation was begun and completed.

B2 All matter will continue for approximately the same length of time, ie from the range of dates between when the process of destruction of the universe was begun and completed.

A3 Any particle of matter or quantum of energy may have existed for any length of time, ie they are originating without cause, and at random.

B3 Any particle of matter or quantum of energy may cease to exist at any time ie they are continuously disappearing without trace, by extinction, without cause and at random.

He concludes that the combination of A3 with B3 (the symmetrical impermanence of matter) is the minimum assumption, and has the maximum explanatory power, explaining the following:

Evolution of galaxies. Origins of hydrogen atoms, together with their associated space, occur at random, so most occur in extra-galactic space. They gradually fall into galaxies, nebulae and stars, which explains their shapes, spiral arms, rotation, and many other observed phenomena.

Gravitional attraction Extinctions of nuclei, together with their associated space, also occur at random, so most occur in dense accumulations, in stars. Extinctions cause a local contraction of space, causing it to become curved. Einstein’s relativity theory shows that a body possessing inert and gravitational mass will be attracted and accelerated if it is free from restraint.in curved space. Extinctions cause gravitation to occur in pulses (ie quantised) which travel outwards as a wave, so it is not the signature of matter, but its swan song.

Half-life of matter. He calculates that this is between 300 and 400 million years, so if the earth is 2 billion years old, it will have shrunk to about a thirtieth of its original mass. The force of gravity (g) has been correspondingly decreasing, which explains continental drift, the formation of mountain ranges, and the evolution of species and man.

Origin of the solar system He suggests that the sun was originally twinned as a binary, and its companion (now called Jupiter) failed to capture enough hydrogen, so burnt out and collapsed, generating the heavy elements, shrank by extinctions, spinning faster and faster until it burst, throwing off earth and the other planets.

Why are space and mass coupled? Einstein showed that space is not a featureless container of matter, but a featured (curved) environment of non-Euclidean geometry. How can an abstract curvature of space interact with a concrete particle? Hoyle postulated ‘continuous creation’ to explain an observed expanding universe with constant mass density. When some mass / space originates / becomes extinct, so does some space / mass.

Bound and free curvature. In an electrostatic field an electron may be bound to the charge at its centre, or be free when it breaks off from the antennae of a transmitter. He discusses how a quantity of space (say a cubic centimetre) can be so tightly curved or folded into the minute volume of a proton or electron.

What is anti-space? An extinction is an unfolding of this quantity (say a cubic centimetre) of curved anti-space. The flattening out is equivalent to the extinction of an equal quantity of space, and is manifest as a wave of contraction, a pulse of gravity.

What is a particle? He concludes that a particle is a curvature of anti-space.

What is anti-gravity? Anti-gravity is the pulsed wave of repulsion when a particle, together with its associated space originates. It pushes other particles away, in the same way as a wave of gravity attracts them. It is the unfolding of bound curvature of space, as follows:

Constituent

Curved space

Curved anti-space

Effect when bound

Anti-particle

Particle

Effect when free

Anti-gravitation

Gravitation

Duality and unified field theory.
The above notions of gravity and anti-gravity, space and anti-space, curvature and anti-curvature, are unifying, bringing the origin of matter (cosmology) into the same duality as all other physical phenomena, including positive and negative electric charge, north and south magnetism, electron and positron.

Further research
He wrote the book, (as he says in the preface) and all his previous papers, not to spin theories, but to invite critical comment, and find people willing to explore the implications of Occam’s Razor. He never ceased to feel sure that a team would do the job better. I have written this abstract and created this website, for the same reason, to stimulate research projects in exciting new directions.

Conclusion (quoted verbatim from p281, appendix H ‘Space and Mass’)
‘If this interpretation is tenable, there are, apart from electromagnetism, two kinds of basic process in the physical world. The first of these is the separation out of flat space of two things: one is a wave of free curvature, and the other a minute region of bound anti-curvature. These are distinguishable only in that one is free and the other bound.
The second process is the subsequent collapse of the bound anti-curvature. In collapsing it appears as a wave of free anti-curvature, which is equal and opposite to the previous wave of curvature. It differs from it, however, in time and space. If the two waves coincided in time and space, there would be no effect. Physical effects occur only because two processes that are equal and opposite are separated by a space time interval. The very existence of a physical universe depends on this random, indeterminate, and uncaused interval of time between the origin of a wave of curvature and the later cancelling wave of anti-curvature.’

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