Particularly in Chapter 22, but also elsewhere, a number of questions about
gravitation have been raised to which the traditional theory has no answers.
But for most of these questions answers are provided by the new theory
and these will be presented here. Before this is done, however, a com-
parison of the statements about gravitation that are implicit in each of the
theories will be helpful. It is given in parallel columns below:
| Traditional Theory
I. The cause of a gravitational field
is the presence at its source of an
accumulation of inert mass.
| New Theory
The cause of a gravitational field is
the extinction at its source of elementary components of the material
2. Every particle at the source of a
gravitational field contributes a share
to the field strength, and this contribution is proportional to the inert mass
of the particle.
Only those components contribute
to the strength of the gravitational
field that are becoming extinct at the
3. The hypothesis on which the
theory is based is the ad hoc one that
every body with inert mass also has
The hypothesis on which the theory
is based is the Principle of Minimum
Assumption. From it the Symmetrical
Impermanence of matter is inferred
and from this, in turn, the new theory,
4. The immediate basis of the theory,
namely the identity of inert and
attracting mass, has no other manifestations
The immediate basis of the theory,
namely Symmetrical Impermanence,
has many other manifestations. Among
them are the occurrence of interstellar gas, the expansion of space,
the occurrence of discrete nebulae,
their detailed structure. The more
remote basis of the theory, namely the
Principle of Minimum Assumption,
has vastly more manifestations and is
the widest of the generalizations with which physicists work.
5. The observed constant ratio
between the strength of the gravita-
tional field and the quantity of inert
mass at its source is the consequence of
a specific law
The observed constant ratio is not the consequence of any specific law,
and such laws are precluded by the
Principle of Minimum Assumption.
The constant ratio is the consequence of a statistical law, which says that in
a sufficiently large sample of matter
the rate of extinctions per unit volume
must be nearly constant.
6. The gravitational field is not the
consequence of any change. It depends
on what is, not on what happens.
The gravitational field is the consequence of a change, namely that from
existence to non-existence of an elementary component. Thus it does
depend on what happens.
7. Gravitation is unique among
physical phenomena in being continuous
Like a beam of light, which consists of separate photons, a gravitational field consists of separate pulses.
It is thus quantized and, in this sense, intermittent.
8. As the source of a gravitational
field does not undergo any change in
producing the field, it does not lose
any energy in doing so.
The source of a gravitational field
loses the energy that is represented by the mass of the elementary components that are becoming extinct.
9. As the source of a gravitational
field is not losing energy in producing the field, gravitation is, unlike light, sound and all other phenomena, not the consequence of the transmission of anything from one place to another.
Like light, sound and all other
phenomena, a gravitational effect only
occurs when something is transmitted
from one place to another.
10. Being unassociated with change of any sort, a gravitational field cannot consist of waves.
The gravitational field can and does
consist of waves of curvature in space.
They are set up whenever a particle
Answers to the various questions about gravitation that have hitherto
proved puzzling are largely (and I hope wholly) implicit in the above list
of statements. Those that have been asked in Chapter 22 are answered
below in the order in which they occur.
Question: Can gravitation be brought into association with the main
body of science?
Answer: The reason why this could not be done in the past was that the
traditional theory is based on an ad hoc hypothesis. This was that a specific
law, applicable only to objects with inert and gravitational mass,
requires them also to have something quite different, namely attracting
It has been explained in Chapter I that ad hoc hypotheses and unified
theories are incompatible and a brief recapitulation will be helpful here.
Before Newton there was the ad hoc hypothesis that a specific law,
applicable only to planets, required these to move in elliptical orbits. Had
Newton been content with this he would not have achieved the unification
of all mechanics that has done so much for science. He would have left
many questions about planets, and other things, unanswered that he
clarified when he showed that many apparently isolated phenomena are
really special manifestations of general principles. Once the elliptical orbit
of planets was no longer explained by an ad hoc hypothesis it found its
place in the main body of science.
It is similarly pointed out in the third of the above statements that,
according to the new theory, gravitation is one of many manifestations of
a general principle, namely Symmetrical Impermanence. This alone would
suffice to bring gravitation within the main body of science. But the
unification goes even further.
The Principle of the Symmetrical Impermanence of Matter is, in turn,
not based on an ad hoc hypothesis, but is an inference from an even more
general principle. This is the Principle of Minimum Assumption. Sym-
metrical Impermanence appears as but one of very many manifestations of
this. A more general principle could hardly be thought of. It both precludes
all ad hoc hypotheses and provides a roof over a complete and self-consist-
ent structure of scientific thought in physics in which gravitation finds a
place and bears a logical relation to all other parts.
Question: Why do inert and attracting mass always occur in
Answer: They do not. Matter has no gravitational effect during its
continued existence. Each particle exercises this effect only at the moment
of its extinction.
From statistical considerations one should, of course, expect to observe
strict proportionality between the quantity of inert mass present in a body
and the gravitational field that surrounds it. For the extinctions that
produce the field must occur at a rate proportional to the amount of mass.
But we have been misled in the past by this proportionality into the belief
that every atom is contributing to the field all the time.
It is interesting to note that a similar hypothesis never seems to have
been seriously entertained about radio-activity. The notion that every
atom in a lump of radium contributes to the radiation all the while has
had little, if any, support. We should today smile at anyone who insisted
that it must be so. We know that the activity occurs only at the moments
when an atom is disintegrating. We do not regard radio-activity as the
signature tune of each atom of radium but as its swan song. Yet the
metaphor of signature tune is still commonly regarded as the only appropriate one for gravitation.
Question: Why does gravitation seem to contradict the Principle of
Stabilization, according to which every process in a self-contained system
tends to reduce its cause?
Answer: It only seems to do so and this because we have hitherto
wrongly assumed the system in which a gravitational field occurs to be self-contained. Such a system is one in which matter neither originates nor
becomes extinct. That in a gravitational system processes tend to increase
their causes does not prove, therefore, that the principle does not hold
universally. What it provides evidence for is that a system in which there
is gravitation is not a self-contained one.
Question: Why do gravitational fields always have the same sign?
Answer: Because they have only been observed where the mass density
enormously exceeds the equilibrium value. The rate of extinctions per
unit volume therefore enormously exceeds the rate of origins. As the sign
of the field depends on which rate exceeds the other, one must expect the
sign in the vicinity of massive bodies always to be the same. But the observed
constancy of the sign is the result of statistical laws and not of a specific
A region where the rate of origins exceeds the rate of extinctions per
unit volume must be surrounded by a field of the opposite sign. In such a
region the mass density is below the equilibrium value.
Question: Why is there a limited number of constant ratios between
unit electric charge and the inert mass of an elementary particle?
Answer: This question is not about gravitation at all. It is about
inertia and electric charge. One must not expect the new theory to provide
an answer and it cannot do so. But, nevertheless, the question has some
relevance here. For the conclusion that gravitation is quantized may give a
new urgency to a search for a principle by which all the indivisible physical
quantities are co-related.
Question: Why is the gravitational field attributed to an elementary
particle vastly weaker than the electrostatic one?
Answer: It is not necessarily so. Let t be the time during which an
extinction is being effective and let 1 / n be the fraction of the particles
present at the source of the field that are becoming extinct during this
time. Of course, n is a very large number. The contribution to the field
made by a particle is then n times the contribution attributed to it by the
traditional theory and may be of similar magnitude to the electrostatic
field around an electron.
There must be a quantitative relation between the duration of a pulse
of gravitation, t, the number n, and the half-life of matter. If two of these
quantities were known, the third could be calculated. But at present none
of them are known. It will be worthwhile to look for pointers to the value
of these three quantities.
Question: Why is gravitation uncontrollable?
Answer: Because the events that cause it, namely extinctions, are
uncontrollable. Their uncontrollability is, indeed, intrinsic and it would be
idle to attempt to overcome it. According to Symmetrical Impermanence,
origins and extinctions are not associated with anything in the existing
state of affairs. If they were, they would not be true origins and extinctions,
but only conversions. Hence anything that one could do to influence the
existing state of affairs could not have any effect on origins and extinctions.
It follows that a given inert mass must always be surrounded by the same
constant gravitational field whatever be done to it or to anything else.
Question: Why is gravitation the only phenomenon that does not seem
to be the consequence of any change?
Answer: It is not. Like every other known phenomenon gravitation is
the consequence of a change and the change is the most radical that can be
conceived. It is the change between existence and non-existence of an
Question: How can one reconcile the conceptual difficulty of action at
a distance with what is known about gravitation?
Answer: The distance between the place where the extinction occurs
and the place where a particle is accelerated is spanned by the movement
of a wave of curvature. One can think of this as a pulse of gravitation. Like
a letter, a projectile or a photon of radiation, it is a carrier of something
and transfers a change in the geometry of space from one place to another.
There is, therefore, no action at a distance. The action of gravitation, like
that of light, is effected by the transmission of a signal.
I should hesitate, however, to suggest that the pulse of gravitation can
helpfully be regarded as a carrier of energy. I am strongly inclined to deny
it. It is true that each particle over which the pulse passes is accelerated to
a velocity, v. We can speak of the particle as having acquired the kinetic
energy, 1/2 mv2. But we may not speak of this as having been acquired at the
expense of the energy in the pulse; for the energy in the pulse does not seem
to be changed by the encounter. If it were changed, there would be
such a thing as screening against gravitation and we know that there is
It must not be forgotten that gravitational fields can only occur because
the system is not self-contained. Hence the Principle of Conservation of
Energy is not applicable and one must be very cautious about drawing
inferences from this principle.
Question: There is, further, a question that occurred in Chapter 7
Why do we not observe an infinite intensity of gravitation here and
Answer: It will be remembered that we should expect to observe an
infinite intensity of radiation if it were not for the fact that the universe
is expanding. A consequence of this is that there is an optical horizon. No
radiation can reach us from places beyond this.
According to the new theory there must also be a gravitational horizon.
There must be a critical distance beyond which any two objects are being
separated at a rate greater than the velocity of propagation of the gravitational waves.
As the velocity of the waves is not known, this distance is not known
either. Perhaps a method for discovering its value will be found some day.
Top of Page